China's Second World of Poetry (Unofficial Journal List & Timeline)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sichuan Unofficial Journal List, including scanned copies of Tables of Contents and Covers (pending), and List of Major Sichuan Avant-garde Poets and the Journals their work can be found in (digitally scanned copies will be available in a later e-book format) 次生林 (The Born-Again Forest), 1982, 108 pages; (Chengdu) CSL edited by Zhong Ming钟鸣. 第三代人 (The Third Generation), 1983; (Chengdu) TG edited by Zhao Ye赵野, Beiwang北望, Tang Yaping唐亚平, Hu Xiaobo胡晓波, & Deng Xiang邓翔. 莽汉：未定诗稿 (Macho Men: Unsolicited Poetry Manuscripts), 1985, 50 MH pages; (Nanchong & Chengdu) edited by Wan Xia万夏. (Also several mimeographed individual poetry collections.) 现代诗内部交流资料 (Modernists Federation), 1985, 78 pages; (Chengdu) MF edited by Wan Xia万夏, Yang Li杨黎, Zhao Ye赵野, Song Wei宋炜, Hu Dong胡冬, Shi Guanghua石光华 , & Wang Gu王谷. 日日新 (Day By Day Make It New), 1985, 34 pages; (Chongqing) RRX edited by Bai Hua柏桦 & Zhou Zhongling周忠陵. 中国当代实验诗 (Chinese Contemporary Experimental Poetry), 1985, 79 pages; (Fuling) ZDS edited by Yang Shunli杨顺礼, Lei Mingchu雷鸣雏, and Liao Yiwu廖亦武. 非非：Feifei Poetical Works and Poetics, 1986 (80 p.) , 1987 (140 p.), 1988 (150 p.), FF 1988 (146 p.), 1992 (150 p.), 1993 (198 p.); and 非非评论 [Feifei Critique](newspaper format, 4 p.), 1986 & 1987; (Xichang & Chengdu) FFPL editor-in-chief: Zhou Lunyou周伦佑. 汉诗：二十世纪编年史 (Han Poetry), 1986 (122 p.) & 1988 ( 130 p.); (Chengdu) HS edited by Shi Guanghua石光华, Song Qu宋渠, Song Wei宋炜, Wan Xia万夏, Liu Taiheng刘太亨 , & Zhang Yu张渝. 巴蜀现代诗群 (Modern Poetry Groups of Ba and Shu), 1987, 112 pages; (Fuling) BXS edited by Liao Yiwu廖亦武. 红旗 (The Red Flag), 1987-1989, 4 issues, 20-44 pages; (Chongqing) HQ edited by Fu Wei傅维 & Sun Wenbo孙文波. 女子诗报 (The Woman’s Poetry Paper), 1988-1990, 1994, 4 issues, 4 pages; (Xichang) NZSB edited by Xiaoyin晓音. 象罔 (Image Puzzle), 1990-1992 a total of 12 issues, between 12-90 pages each; XW (Chengdu), edited by Zhong Ming钟鸣, Zhao Ye赵野, Xiang Yixian向以鲜, and Chen Zihong陈子弘. 反对 (Against), 1990-1993 a total of 14 issues, between 11-52 pages each; (Chengdu) FD edited by Xiao Kaiyu肖开愚. 九十年代 (The Nineties), 1989-1993 a total of 4 issues, between 108-126 pages each; JN (Chengdu), edited by Xiao Kaiyu肖开愚 & Sun Wenbo孙文波. 非非诗歌稿件集 (Not-Not Poetry Manuscript Collection), 1990-1991 a total of 2 issues, FF2 142 pages each; (Chengdu) edited by Lan Ma蓝马, Yang Li杨黎, Shang Zhongmin尚仲敏, He Xiaozhu 何小竹, & Li Xiaobin李晓彬. 写作间 (Writer’s Workshop), 1990-1991, 2 issues, 50 pages; (Chongqing) XZJ edited by Fu Wei 付维 & Zhong Shan 钟山. List of Major Sichuan Avant-garde Poets and the Journals their work can be found in. Bai Hua柏桦: CSL, RRX, MF, ZDS, HS, HQ, FF, BXS, XW, JN. Chen Xiaofan陈小繁: MF, FF, FF2, BXS. Er Mao二毛: ZDS, FF, BXS. He Xiaozhu何小竹: ZDS, FF, FF2, BXS. Hu Dong胡冬: MF, MH. Lan Ma蓝马: FF, FFPL, FF2, BXS. Li Yawei李亚伟: MF, ZDS, FF, HS, MH, BXS. Liao Yiwu廖亦武: MF, ZDS, HS, BXS. Liu Tao刘涛: MF, ZDS, FF, FF2, BXS. Ma Song马松: MF, ZDS, MH. Ouyang Jianghe欧阳江河: CSL, RRX, MF, ZDS, HS, BXS, FD, JN. Shang Zhongmin尚仲敏: FF, FFPL, FF2. Shi Guanghua石光华: MF, ZDS, HS, XW, FD. Song Wei & Song Qu宋炜 宋渠: MF, ZDS, HS, BXS. Sun Wenbo孙文波: MF, HS, HQ, BXS, FD, JN. Wan Xia万夏: MF, ZDS, HS, FF, MH, BXS, HQ, JN. Xiao An小安: FF, FF2. Xiao Kaiyu肖开愚: HS, FD, JN. Yang Li杨黎: MF, ZDS, HS, FF, FFPL, FF2, BXS. Yang Yuanhong杨远宏: MF, ZDS, FF, BXS. Zhai Yongming翟永明: CSL, MF, HS, FF, BXS, XW, JN. Zhang Zao张枣: RRX, MF, ZDS, MF, HS, HQ, XW. Zhao Ye赵野: TG, MF, HS, HQ, XW. Zhong Ming钟鸣: CSL, MF, XW, JN. Zhou Lunyou周伦佑: MF, ZDS, HS, FF, FFPL, BXS. A TIMELINE FOR CHINESE POETRY (Limited to materials referred to in this text and focused on Sichuan unofficial poetry developments, for the post-Mao era, until 1993. Information relevant to poetry in bold type.) 2100 – 1600 B.C.E. Xia 夏 Dynasty 1600 – 1100 B.C.E. Shang 商 Dynasty 1100 – 771 B.C.E. Western Zhou 西周 Dynasty Book of Songs 诗经 collected (305 poems, or songs) Book of Changes易经 compiled 770 – 256 B.C.E. Eastern Zhou东周 Dynasty 770 – 476 B.C.E. Spring and Autumn春秋 Period Confucius 孔子, said to have compiled the Book of Songs and the Book of Changes Laozi 老子 475 – 221 B.C.E. Warring States战国 Period Qu Yuan屈原 – First Named Poet Zhuangzi 庄子 221 – 207 B.C.E. Qin 秦 Dynasty 206 B.C.E. – 220 Han汉 Dynasty 206 B.C.E. – C.E. 23 Western Han西汉 25 – 220 Eastern Han东汉 220 – 280 Three Kingdoms 三国 265 – 316 Western Jin 西晋 Dynasty 317 – 420 Eastern Jin东晋 Dynasty Tao Yuanming陶渊明 420 – 581 Northern and Southern Dynasties南北朝 Period (4 in the North, 5 in the South) 581 – 618 Sui隋 Dynasty 618 – 907 Tang 唐 Dynasty Li Bai李白 and Du Fu杜甫 907 – 960 Five Dynasties五代 Period 960 – 1127 Northern Song北宋 Dynasty Su Dongpo苏东坡 and Li Qingzhao李清照 1127 – 1279 Southern Song南宋 Dynasty 916 – 1125 Liao 辽 Dynasty (in the North) 1115 – 1234 Jin 金 Dynasty (in the North) 1271 – 1368 Yuan 元 Dynasty (Mongol rule) 1368 – 1644 Ming 明 Dynasty 1644 – 1911 Qing清 Dynasty (Manchu rule) 1912 – 1949 Republic of China 中华民国 1915-1921: New Culture Movement. New Youth新青年 magazine founded in 1915, publishes first New Poetry in 1917. Hu Shi胡适 publishes first New Poetry collection, Experiments 尝试集 (1919). 1919: May Fourth Movement. Goddesses女神 by Guo Moruo郭沫若published in 1921. Poetry collections of Bing Xin冰心 published in 1923. First collection of Symbolist poetry by Li Jinfa李金发 published in 1925. 1927: Civil War between CCP and Nationalists begins. 1931: Japanese occupation of Manchuria 1937: Japan begins to invade eastern and southern China. Mao Zedong’s “Talks at Yan’an on Literature and the Arts” in May 1942, and thought reform campaign against critical leftist writers. 1945: Surrender of Japan. The Nine Leaves 九叶派poets begin publishing modernist verse in 1946. 1948: CCP thought reform drive against the Hu Feng胡风 group of leftist writers. 1949: Civil War ends, Nationalists flee to Taiwan. 1949 – People’s Republic of China 中华人民共和国 1954-1955: Thought reform campaigns against Hu Feng and others. 1957-1958: Anti-Rightist Campaign against critical intellectuals. 1958-1959: The Great Leap Forward push toward communism, which led to the deaths of tens of millions through famine between 1959-1962. 1963: Socialist Education Campaign – large numbers of intellectuals sent to the countryside for thought reform. 1966-1969: Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution – universities and literary journals closed, nationwide attacks on rightist intellectuals. 1969-1976: Rule of the Gang of Four and ultra-leftist cultural policies. 1976: Death of Zhou Enlai and the April Fifth Movement, followed by the death of Mao and the fall of the Gang of Four. 1978-1979: Democracy Wall and the Beijing Spring – Crackdown from 1 April 1979. Deng Xiaoping takes power from Hua Guofeng (Mao’s anointed heir) and introduces The Four Basic Principles (upholding CCP rule), while denouncing liberalization. Today今天 founded in December 1978, banned in September 1980.
by Bei Dao北岛 published in March 1979 issue of Poetry诗刊.
Aug. 1980: An article in Poetry denounces Misty poetry and a polemic begins in
official literary publications.
Unofficial university student poetry conference in Chongqing in 1982.
Publication of The Born-Again Forest 次生林 in Chengdu at same time.
Publication of The Third Generation 第三代人 in Chengdu in 1983.
Oct. 1983: A campaign against Misty and New Tide poetry begins at an official
poetry conference in Chongqing. At the same time, Deng Xiaoping calls
for the elimination of Spiritual Pollution. Bei Dao, Gu Cheng, Yang Lian,
and Xu Jingya are among writers singled out for criticism.
Establishment of the Macho Men 莽汉 poetry group in Nanchong in early 1984.
Sichuan Young Poets Association四川省青年诗人协会 established in Chengdu in November 1984.
Dec. 1984: The National Writers Association is allowed to freely elect its president
Jan. 1985: CCP secretary-general Hu Yaobang denounces “radical leftist nonsense” of
preferring “socialist weeds to capitalist seedlings,” and Hu Qili speaks of
allowing creative freedom.
Publication of Modernists Federation现代诗内部交流资料, Day By Day Make It New日日新, and Chinese Contemporary Experimental Poetry中国当代实验诗歌 in 1985.
Publication of Not-Not非非 #1 and Han Poetry汉诗 #1 in 1986.
Dec. 1986: After a crackdown on free university student association elections, student
demonstrations for democracy and freedom begin in Hefei, spread to
Chongqing, Kunming, and Shenzhen, and then to Tianjin, Nanjing, and
Jan. 1987: Hu Yaobang is forced to resign, followed by cultural crackdown and a
national campaign to learn the spirit of self-sacrifice from the Cultural
Revolution model soldier Lei Feng. A new state agency is established to
control all publications and press and oversee distribution of all supplies
needed in printing.
Feb. 1987: The combined Jan-Feb. issue of People’s Literature 人民文学 is recalled,
the work of the novelist Ma Jian 马建 and poets Yi Lei伊蕾 and Liao
Yiwu廖亦武 are criticized in a subsequent national campaign against
bourgeois liberalization in culture.
Publication of Modern Poetry Groups of Ba and Shu巴蜀现代诗群 (edited by Liao), Not-Not 非非 #2 and The Red Flag 红旗 #1 in 1987.
Nov. 1987: Zhao Ziyang made CCP secretary-general, removal of top hard-line
conservatives from CCP politburo, renewed emphasis on economic
reforms and stability.
Publication of Not-Not 非非 #3 & 4 and Han Poetry 汉诗 #2 in 1988.
Publication of The Woman’s Poetry Paper女子诗报 #1 in 1989.
Apr. 1989: Hu Yaobang dies; in Beijing university student demonstrations at his death
turn to calls for free speech, democracy, and against CCP corruption. Other
sectors of society participate, and demonstrations spread throughout the
Jun. 1989: Bloody suppression of peaceful mass protests in Beijing and Chengdu on
June 3-4; Zhao Ziyang forced to resign.
Liao Yiwu writes Parts 3 & 4 of
in Fuling on the morning of June Fourth, later in the day tapes dramatic reading of the poem.
Zhou Lunyou周伦佑 arrested in Xichang in August 1989.
Publication of Image Puzzle 象罔 #1, The Nineties 九十年代 #1 in late 1989.
Publication of Against 反对 #1 in early 1990.
Liao Yiwu and several other poets arrested in March 1990 for avant-garde poetry video commemorating the dead of June Fourth 1989.
Publication of Not-Not Poetry Manuscript Collection非非诗歌稿件集 #1 and The Writer’s Workshop写作间 #1 in 1990.
Publication of Modern Han Poetry现代汉诗 #1 in Beijing in 1991.
Jan. 1992: Deng Xiaoping’s Trip to the South to reinvigorate economic reforms; but
collapse of the Soviet Union means continued cultural repression into 1993.
Publication of Not-Not 非非 #5 in 1992, and #6-7 in 1993.
Official publication of Collected Post-Misty Poems: A Chronicle of Chinese Modern Poetry后朦胧诗全集：中国现代编年史 in August 1993.